Constitution of India was adopted on November 26, 1949 – Why do we celebrate Republic Day on January 26?


Republic Day in India is celebrated on 26th January every year to honor the day when the Constitution of India came into effect in 1950.

The Constitution replaced the Government of India Act (1935) as the main governing document paving way for a new Democratic Republic Nation.

India attained Independence on 15th August 1947. However, the nation did not have a permanent constitution and its governing laws were still based on the Government of India Act.

On 29th August 1947, a resolution was passed to create a drafting committee that would be in charge of drafting the Permanent Constitution of India. Dr. B.R Ambedkar was made the Chairman of the Committee.

The draft was submitted on 4th November 1947 to the Constituent Assembly. The Assembly held numerous sessions that were open to public for the next two years.

The Constitution of India was adopted by the Indian Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949 but it came into effect on 26th January 1950. This was done in honor of 26th January 1929, the day when the Indian National Congress declared that India will only settle for ‘Purna Swaraj‘ and nothing else. Dominion status offered by the British Regime was deemed unacceptable by the Congress leaders.

On 24th January 1950, two handwritten copies of the constitution were signed by the members of the Assembly and just two days later, the Constitution of India came into effect.

On 26th January 1950, the first President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad began his term. This day will remain as one of the most important days in the history of India.

Also Read: Republic Day 2021: Full text of Preamble to the Indian Constitution in English, Hindi, and Marathi